MIGRATION IN INDIA OVER THE YEARS

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Human migration is movement by humans from one area to another, sometimes over long distances or in large groups. Historically this movement was nomadic, often causing significant conflict with the indigenous population and their displacement. Only a few nomadic people have retained this form of lifestyle in modern times.

Human voluntary migration is when they choose to leave by their own will and without being forced and involuntary migration means when people are forced to move to different jobs or areas. (which includes the slave trade, trafficking in human beings and so on.)

People who migrate into a territory are called immigrants, while at the departure point they are called emigrants. Small populations migrating to develop a territory considered void of settlement depending on historical setting, circumstances and perspective are referred to as settlers or colonists, while populations displaced by immigration and colonization are called refugees.

The First and Second World Wars, and wars, genocides, and crises sparked by them, had an enormous impact on migration. Muslims moved from the Balkan to Turkey, while Christians moved the other way, during the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Four hundred thousand Jews had already moved to Palestine in the early twentieth century, and numerous Jews to America, as already mentioned. The Russian Civil War caused some three million Russians, Poles, and Germans to migrate out of the new Soviet Union.

Decolonization following the Second World War also caused migrations. This trend continues even today in the modern world. In 1947, upon the Partition of India, large populations moved from India to Pakistan and vice versa, depending on their religious beliefs. The partition was promulgated in the Indian Independence Act. 1947, as a result of the dissolution of the British Indian Empire.

The partition displaced up to 12.5 million people in the former British Indian Empire, with estimates of loss of life varying from several hundred thousand to a million. Muslim residents of the former British India migrated to Pakistan (including East Pakistan, which is now Bangladesh), while Hindu and Sikh residents of Pakistan and Hindu residents of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) moved in India.

In modern India, migration for the poor is mainly circular, as despite moving temporarily to urban areas, they lack the social security which might keep them there more permanently. They are also keen to maintain a foothold in home areas during the agricultural season. Therefore, there are two factors of migration. The pull factors are unemployment, war, no security and jobs etc. The push factors are employment, job opportunities, education, security etc. Migration may be from rural to rural, rural to urban, urban to rural and urban to urban.

The Indian Immigration Act was passed by the government in Under this act, those people who migrated to Middle East and South-East Asia as industrial labourers or plantation workers mostly were granted free visas and were allotted lands for living and other equipments needed for agriculture for the farmers. For labourers, they were given various requirements needed for construction. The Indian Emigration Act passed in 1985, is restricted to the people migrating within the country. They are looked upon by the government for various legitimate reasons.

In the end, I would say that migration occurs due to job, education, marriage etc. For women, education or employment enhances their autonomy and role in the economy but also increase their vulnerability due to lack of social security. Hence, migration is very low in developed and developing countries while migration is very high in underdeveloped countries.

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